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Terminology

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Active Coils:

Refers to the number of coils within a spring which actively participate in providing spring force. Dead coils and Active coils add up to the total number of coils in a spring.

Axial Space:

Space needed on application to allow for operation of the springs. This dimension does not refer to the length of the coils.

Belleville / Belleville Spring Washer:

See Disc Spring

Brass Plate:

Brass plate is a plating or coating that applies brass to the surface of materials.

Brushed:

Refers to a finish type where the material has a directional satin finish, it can be thought of as small scratches in a structured implementation.

Closed and Ground Ends:

See Squared And Ground

Closed Ends:

See Squared And Ground

Coiled:

Refers to a manufacturing process where material, typically round, is wound into a coil.

Compression Spring:

A type of spring that when "compressed" provides a force to return the spring to the resting length.

Coned End with Swivel Hook:

Refers to the ends of extension springs and the loops on the ends. Swivel hooks can rotate independent of the spring body. Coned ends retain the swivel hook to the extension spring.

Conical Compression Spring:

A type of compression spring where the outer diameter grows over the length of the spring. Such springs have lower solid height's because the springs nest upon compression.

Counter Bore:

Refers to a hole type which has a flat bottom and accommodates screw types like socket head screws.

Counter Sunk:

Refers to a hole type which has a tapered bottom and accommodates flat head screws.

Curved Spring Washer:

Refers to a spring type that resembles a flat washer that was formed over a cylinder.

Dead Coils:

Refers to the number of coils within a spring which do not actively participate in providing spring force, generally associated with the ends of the spring. Dead coils and Active coils add up to the total number of coils in a spring.

DIN 2093:

A DIN specification for disc springs; covering size, expected life, etc.

Disc Spring:

A type of "flat spring" commonly referred to as a "disc spring" or "conical disc spring" that is made from flat material stock and resembles a flat washer that was formed over a cone.

Double Full Loops:

Refers to the ends of extension springs and the loops on the ends. Double full loops provide two continuous loops of wire or approximately two complete circles for attachment.

Durometer:

Refers to a measurement of hardness of material, typically associated with plastics.

Equal Leaves:

For a hinge, this refers to having two leaves of equal size.

Extension Spring:

A type of spring that when "extended" provides a force to return the spring to the resting length.

Finger Spring Washer:

Refers to a spring type that resembles a flat washer with small bent fingers on the ID and OD.

Flag:

For a hinge, flag refers to leaves that are completely offset. Typically flag hinges can rotate 360 degrees if nothing impedes this rotation in the application.

Flat Spring:

Refers to a series of springs made from flat material stock.

Forged:

Refers to a manufacturing process where pieces of material are formed at elevated temperatures via a die or a series of dies into formed (forged) parts.

Free Fit in Pocket:

Refers to the smallest size of a hole (or pocket) into which a spring will slide & operate within.

Free Fit Over Rod:

Refers to the largest size of a mandrel (or shaft, or rod) over which a spring will slide.

Free Height:

Refers to the natural or resting height of a spring.

Free Length:

Refers to the natural or resting length of a spring.

Full Twist Loops:

Refers to the ends of extension springs and the loops on the ends. Full twist loops provide a single full loop or approximately full circle for attachment.

Half Loop:

Refers to the ends of extension springs and the loops on the ends. Half loops provide a half loop or approximately half circle of material for attachment.

Initial Tension:

Refers to the amount of force required to gain the initial separation in an extension spring.

ISO 10243:

An ISO specification for Die Springs; covering size, color, expected life, etc.

JIS B 5012:

A JIS specification for Die Springs; covering size, color, expected life, etc.

Knuckle:

For a hinge, the knuckles refers to the alternating pieces of material that are held together by the pin.

Leaf / Leaves:

For a hinge, the leaves refer to the flat portions on either side of the hinge.

Left Hand Wound:

Refers to the helix direction of a spring. When viewing a right hand wound spring from the end, the last coil will stop in a clockwise direction.

Lift Off:

For a hinge, lift off refers to a style where the door or panel can be lifted off with the upper half of the hinge if required.

Load at Flat:

Refers to a specific amount of force a spring will provide when compressed completely flat.

Load at Height:

Refers to a specific amount of force a spring will provide when at a specific height.

Load at Length:

Refers to a specific amount of force a spring will provide when at a specific length.

Loose Pin:

For a hinge, a loose pin indicates the pin is not held in place and can be removed if desired.

Magnetism:

Some materials are subject to a physical phenomenon of attraction in the presence of a magnetic field which is enabled by the motion within the material at the molecular level. Materials have different levels response to a magnetic field. For example alloy steel and plastic have very different levels of magnetism. The level of magnetism is also not only based on the material, but for many metals depends on the exact state/prior workmanship. For example the process of cold working 300 Series stainless steels can introduce levels of magnetism that are proportional to the percentage of cold-working; which would not be present in the annealed, or softest, condition.  

Mill Finish:

Refers to the standard finish of the material as it left the mill.

Music Wire:

Refers to a type of steel commonly used to make springs.

Nickel Plate:

Nickel plate is a plating or coating that applies nickel to the surface of materials, typically steels.

Open:

Refers to ends of compression springs that are left open or have no special end configruation

Passivation / Passivized:

A process of making materials less affected by environmental factors. The outer layer of material is protected from corrosion and is common for stainless steels.

Pin:

For a hinge, the pin refers to the small piece of material down the center of the hinge holding the two halves together.

Plain Finish:

Is the normal finish of material from which the parts are made.

Polished Finished:

Refers to a finish type where the material has a shiny mirror like surface.

Right Hand Wound:

Refers to the helix direction of a spring. When viewing a right hand wound spring from the end, the last coil will stop in a counter-clockwise direction.

Satin Finish:

Refers to a finish type where the material has a dull surface.

Set Removed:

A process of compressing springs after initial manufacturing so that the performance of the spring is stable afterwards. The physical height of the spring is reduced during this process and loads at any given height will be different before and after.

Shot-Peened / Shot-Peening:

A process of inducing surface level stresses in material to improve fatigue life. Small particles are impacted into the surface, like steel balls, to create the surface stresses.

Slip On:

For a hinge, slip on refers to a style of hinge where the two halves "slip together".

Solid Height:

Refers to the minimum height allowed based on material in a spring. Solid Height's should not be used for applications, as frequently the solid height represents a deflection well beyond the normal operating range of spring.

Spring Rate:

Refers to  property of the spring which is the amount of force per unit deflection of the spring. Spring rates are approximately constant, but the acceptable range of travel for the spring rate to be valid varies by spring type.

Spring Steel:

Refers to a group of steels that are commonly used to make springs.

Spun on End:

For a hinge, spun on end indicates a pin that has had the ends enlarged (spun) such that the pin is permanently installed.

Squared and Ground:

Refers to ends of springs that have been "squared and ground", which means the end wire loop was first aligned perpendicular to the length and then ground flat.

Squared Not Ground:

Refers to the ends of springs that have been "squared", which means the spring end wire loops are perpendicular to the length.

Stainless Steel:

A material family that has additional Chromium content, relative to Steel, that provides additional corrosion protection. Different grades of stainless steel provide different properties and must be selected to match the application.

Staked Pin:

For a hinge, a staked pin indicates the pin is held in place via staking of the knuckles and cannot be removed.

Stamped:

Refers to a manufacturing process where originally flat stock is introduced into a press to make formed (stamped) parts.

Stress:

Refers to the internal forces experienced within the object. Stresses are increased with increased deflection of a spring. Stresses beyond acceptable levels permanently change the free state of the part and/or fracture the part.

Stroke:

Refers to the nominal amount of displacement (motion) acceptable for a strut, gas spring, drawer slides, etc.

Swaged/ Swaging:

For a hinge, swaging refers to offsetting the leaf or leaves from the tangent orientation. Swaged hinges have the leaves closer together upon closing than non-swaged hinges.

Take a Set:

Refers to the process of a spring being compressed beyond normally acceptable stress levels and actually reducing the free length or free height of the spring.

Tight Pin:

For a hinge, a tight pin indicates the pin is held in place only by a tight fit, or friction, and can be removed still if desired.

Torque:

Represents a rotational force or twist. Is equal to the multiple of the perpendicular linear force and the lever arm length of such force.

Unequal Leaves:

For a hinge, this refers to having two leaves of unequal size.

Wire Diameter:

Refers to the diameter of the wire from which the spring is made.

Wound:

See Coiled

Zinc Plate:

Zinc plate is a plating or coating that is applied to materials for enhanced corrosion protection. It is typically applied to steels.

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